Tourmalines have a variety of exciting colors with one of the widest color ranges of any gem.
Tourmaline’s colors have many different causes. It’s generally agreed that traces of iron, and possibly titanium, induce green and blue colors. Manganese produces reds and pinks, and possibly yellows. Some pink and yellow tourmalines might owe their hues to color centers caused by radiation, which can be natural or laboratory-induced.
Francisco Spinoza’s expedition discovers “Brazilian emerald”: the first recorded green tourmaline crystal.
Tourmaline becomes electrically charged when heated. Also when squeezed: it’s piezoelectric too.
Brazilian source famous for vivid blue to green tourmalines colored by copper.
There are a number of processes used to alter the color, apparent clarity, or improve the durability of gems.
Tourmaline is a birthstone for October, along with opal. Tourmaline is also the gem of the eighth anniversary.