The name “sapphire” can also apply to any corundum that’s not ruby red, another corundum variety.
Besides blue sapphire and ruby, the corundum family also includes so-called “fancy sapphires.” They come in violet, green, yellow, orange, pink, purple, and intermediate hues. Some stones exhibit the phenomenon known as color change, most often going from blue in daylight or fluorescent lighting to purple under incandescent light. Sapphires can even be gray, black, or brown.
Intensely saturated and velvety, rare sapphires from Kashmir set the standard for blue.
The world’s most famous engagement ring: Kate Middleton’s and Princess Diana’s sapphire.
A rare and valuable pinkish-orange sapphire named from the Sinhalese for lotus blossom.
There are processes used to alter the color, apparent clarity, or improve the durability of gems. Some gemstones have synthetic counterparts that have essentially the same chemical, physical, and optical properties, but are grown by man in a laboratory.
Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 5th and 45th anniversaries.
Depending on their trace element content, sapphire varieties of the mineral corundum might be blue, yellow, green, orange, pink, purple or even show a six-rayed star if cut as a cabochon.